What is Nanotechnology?


Nano, derived from the Latin word for ‘dwarf,’ signifies one-billionth of a meter, defining the scale of nanotechnology. This field revolutionized material production, allowing the creation of substances at the nano scale. Fascinatingly, materials at this scale exhibit unique properties distinct from their larger forms, opening doors to novel applications. Nanostructures can be formed via two primary methods. The first, the ‘top-down approach,’ involves shrinking bulk materials to sub-nano sizes, often resulting in artifacts and compromised surface quality. Conversely, the ‘bottom-up approach’ involves atom-by-atom assembly to craft nanostructured materials. These materials are categorized by dimensionality into zero-dimensional (0-D) quantum dots, one-dimensional (1-D) nanowires, two-dimensional (2-D) thin films, and three-dimensional (3D) nanoparticles.